C# Blooper №6: No warnings about unused parameters.

Before reading any further, please read the disclaimer.

One common mistake that programmers make is to forget to make use of a parameter to a method. This can lead to quite subtle bugs that are hard to track down and correct.

Now, other language compilers are kind enough to warn the programmer that a parameter is unused, and they also allow temporary suppression of the warning for the rare case when such lack of use is legitimate. But not so in Visual C#. If you forget to use a parameter in Visual C#, you will not know unless you run the "Code Analysis" tool on it.

namespace Test6
    class Test
        void moo( int a ) //no warning about unused parameter 'a'.

For more information see Why the Microsoft C# compiler lacks many useful warnings.



Why the Microsoft C# compiler lacks many useful warnings

As my C# Bloopers series of articles shows, the Microsoft C# compiler fails to issue many useful warnings which one would reasonably expect from a decent compiler of any language, and which are in fact readily and lavishly issued by Java compilers.

After all these years that the Microsoft C# compiler has been maturing, one cannot help but postulate that there are alterior motives behind this continued state of misery with respect to warnings. For lo and behold, it just so happens that the "Ultimate" (most feature-packed and most outrageously expensive) edition of Microsoft Visual Studio contains a "Code Analysis" feature, which is capable of issuing hundreds of different types of warnings, ranging from the pedantic to the arcane, and including most, if not all, of the missing warnings that I am discussing here.

Now, besides the fact that the Code Analysis feature comes at a considerable additional cost, it is also very cumbersome to use on a frequent basis, since it has been built as a separate product feature, instead of having been integrated into the compiler. For one thing, it is very slow. Another thing is that it is very spammy: we are talking about multiple warnings for every single line of code here, most of which are useless, and the first thing you need to do about them is to turn them off. And there are several dozen warnings to turn off. 

This cumbersomeness makes the Code Analysis feature unsuitable for use in the instant builds which developers tend to perform every few minutes or so, and more suitable to use as a separate code-quality-assurance step to be performed once or twice during the entire development process of a product, or at best on nightly builds. Unfortunately, it is precisely on instant builds that the warnings I am talking about in these articles are most useful. Better yet, most of these warnings are useful in real-time, while typing the code, in the form of yellow curly underlines. For example, as a developer, I want to know that a parameter to a method I have just written goes unused before I even proceed to start coding the next method, because it most probably means that I forgot something or I did something wrong. This information is useful not tomorrow, not in a couple of months, but right now.

So, what has probably happened here is that the Microsoft C# compiler team was told by Microsoft's marketing department to intentionally cripple the C# compiler and make it less useful to all of us, by moving some of the functionality which rightfully belongs to it into some other module, so that their premium "Ultimate" product can have a raison d'ĂȘtre.

I bet you that Balmer is behind this.


C# Blooper №5: Lame/annoying variable scoping rules, Part 2

Before reading any further, please read the disclaimer.

In light of the previous blooper, this one is more of a confusing error message than an actual new blooper. What I am doing below is that I am declaring a field within a class, I am accessing that field from within a method, and further down within the same method I am declaring a new local variable with the same name as the field. Now, C# will not allow me to declare that local variable because it has the same name as the field, but that's not where I am receiving the error. Instead, the error is given when accessing the field. If you only read the first sentence of the error message, it does not make any sense at all. If you bother also reading the second sentence, it gives you a hint as to the real problem. Now, that's not very cool.

namespace Test5
        public class Test
            public int a;

            void foo()
                for( int i = 0;  i < 10;  i++ )
                    a = 10; //error CS0844: Cannot use local variable 'a' before it is declared. The declaration of the local variable hides the field 'Test5.Test.a'.
                string a = "";
                Console.WriteLine( a );

See also: C# Blooper №4: Lame/annoying variable scoping rules, Part 1


How to get a raise

Once upon a time I was dissatisfied with my salary at my workplace, and I let it show. The boss, fearing that he was about to lose me, placed an ad in the newspaper for my exact job description. Since I was looking for a job, I saw the ad in the newspaper. What I did was to reply to that ad, sending my boss my resume, which of course included precisely those qualifications that the job required. The boss got the message.


C# Blooper №4: Lame/annoying variable scoping rules, Part 1

Before reading any further, please read the disclaimer.

A variable identifier is, of course, only visible within the scope in which it is declared. This includes nested (child) scopes, but it does not include enclosing (parent) scopes. In C# however, once a variable identifier has been used in a scope, its name is "poisoned", so it cannot be used in enclosing scopes. Take this example:

namespace Test4
    class Test
        void test()
            if( this != null )
                object o;
                o = null;
                if( o == this )
            object o;  //error CS0136: A local variable named 'o' cannot be declared in this scope because it would give a different meaning to 'o', which is already used in a 'child' scope to denote something else

Well, I am sorry, but in the above case the new variable named 'o' would most definitely *not* give a different meaning to the 'o' which was used in the child scope. It would, if it had been declared before the 'if' statement, but it wasn't. Luckily, if this "feature" was to be removed from the language, it would not break any existing code. So, can we please have this fixed? Pretty please?

See also: C# Blooper №5: Lame/annoying variable scoping rules, Part 2



How to copy multiple contacts from Outlook to Lync

It is kind of amazing how crippled the co-operation is between Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Lync. (Note:  I am talking about Microsoft Office Professional Plus 2010, with Outlook version 14.0 32-bit and Lync 2010.) All I wanted to do was to copy contacts from the Outlook contacts list to the Lync contacts list. Never mind the fact that these two programs should be sharing the exact same contact list and I should not have to do anything of that sort; it sounds like a simple task, right?  Copy contacts from one program to another. These two programs belong to the same Office suite and are supposedly seamlessly integrated with each other. Well, seamlessly my @$$. You can copy single contacts from Lync to Outlook. But if you want to copy a contact from Outlook to Lync, or copy multiple contacts, then you are completely out of luck.  No-can-do, apparently.

Well, I found a trick to do it.  Here is how:

1. Select all the contacts within Outlook that you want to copy to Lync.
2. Hit "Send email", and a new email will be prepared, with all the selected contacts in the "To:" field.
3. Select all the contacts in the "To:" field.
4. Drag and drop the contacts from the "To:" field into a group (not contact) in Lync.
5. Discard the new email.


If you know of a simpler way, please let me know.

Also, if you know of any way to do perform the incredibly advanced operation of... (drum roll please) PRINT YOUR OUTLOOK CONTACTS WITH PICTURES, (duh!) please let me know.



Scanning printed photos

I was looking around for advice on what settings are best for scanning printed photos and I was amazed by the number of answers floating around on the great interwebz which are misguided, or are technically correct but miss the point. So, here is my advice.

First of all, let us define the goal: For a home user to scan printed photos so as to retain as much as possible of the visual information contained in the print, within reasonable limits, and without wasting too much space.

The answer, in a nutshell:  Scan at 600dpi, save as 24-bit-color compressed PNG or compressed TIFF. Do not use any of the fancy options for noise reduction, color correction, contrast enhancement, etc that might be provided by your scanner. If you need to improve something, edit the scanned picture later using your favorite image processing software, but never touch the original scanned files: always work on a copy of the original.

If the nutshell is good enough for you, then off you go, and happy scanning.

If you are interested to know why, read on.

Please note that the way the goal was expressed, we do not have to take into consideration what we are planning to do with the pictures later. When you scan, scan for posterity. Scan so that you can later crop, rotate, retouch, print. etc. If the photos need to be communicated through a low-resolution medium such as the web, then you can later make scaled-down copies for that purpose. But at the time of scanning, the point is to not limit yourself on what you will be able to do later with the scanned photos.

The resolution of photo prints ranges between 150 and 300 dpi. When we scan at 600 dpi, we are doing twice the resolution of a photo print, (or better,) which is the theoretical maximum required so as to capture all the information that there is on the photo print. Every bit of it. Not an iota of information left out. Sure, some color fidelity will inevitably get lost, but that's a different ball game altogether. As far as resolution is concerned, anything above 600 dpi is a pure waste of space.

24 bits per pixel is also perfectly adequate to fully match the capacity of film to convey color. There will be some reduction in color fidelity stemming from the fact that the sRGB color space into which you will most likely be scanning will not necessarily (and in all likelihood never) exactly match the color space of the photo, but the loss in fidelity will be imperceptible, and the measures required to correct this problem are disproportionately painstaking, and outside the "within reasonable limits" requirement stated as the goal in the beginning of this article. Furthermore, when you are working with differences in quality that are not perceptible, it is very easy to make a mistake which reduces, rather than enhances, the fidelity of the digitization, even by an imperceptible amount, and you will never know. So, color is best left at 24 bits per pixel sRGB and never messed with.

Use compressed PNG or TIFF because these file formats offer LOSSLESS compression. Lossless compression means that 100% of the information in the image is retained. Not very close to 100%, not imperceptibly different from 100% but precisely 100%.  Time and again I hear about people who save their pictures in uncompressed TIFF format; obviously, they do not understand squat about compression. It really is not rocket science: there are two kinds of compression, lossy and lossless. Lossy compression (JPEG) achieves huge savings, at a slight (usually imperceptible) expense to quality. Lossless compression (PNG, TIFF) achieves great, but not huge savings, at NO expense to quality. Using no compression serves no purpose, and is just plain stupid. It just spreads your picture over more sectors on your hard drive, increasing the chance that it will one day be lost due to a sector going bad.

Since lossy compression usually represents an imperceptible loss of quality, we could be scanning into JPEG, but the problem here is that if we ever retouch the picture, and then save it again as JPEG, the lossy compression will be re-applied, thus compounding the loss of quality. Keep repeating this cycle, and at some point the deterioration will start becoming perceptible. That's why we always use lossless compression on originals and on working copies, and lossy compression when publishing.


Canon Pixma MX700 printer dead and resurrected (Not!)

My Canon Pixma MX700 printer died the other day as it was printing. It just went completely dead, as if the power cord was unplugged. Today I decided to troubleshoot it. First, I tried a different power outlet. That was not it. Then, I checked the power cord. No problem there. Then, I took out the power supply box and disconnected it from the printer, then I reconnected it and put it back in. No improvement. Then I opened up the power supply box and examined the circuit board in it.

Canon Pixma MX700

I am not terribly familiar with hardware, so I could not tell if the smell was of burned electronic components or if it was just the regular smell of electronics that have been sitting inside a closed box for a few years. Nothing looked burned though, and all the electrolytic capacitors seemed intact. I located 3 fuses on the board, and I checked each one of them for continuity. They were all fine.

So, I decided to give up, and I started putting things back together. I placed the circuit board back in the power supply box, I closed the box, and then for some reason I did something backwards: first I connected the power chord to the power supply box, and then I connected the power supply box to the printer.  As I was attaching the connector, I noticed that one of the pins was momentarily making a little spark. And then lo and behold, the printer came back to life! The printer had fixed itself!

And that, ladies and gentlemen, is why I hate hardware.

UPDATE 2012/07/13: nope, the resurrection was only temporary. The printer is dead. Dead as a doornail. And that, ladies and gentlemen, is why I hate hardware even more.


Solved: Local resources unavailable on remote desktop

I experienced this problem today, drive C: of my local computer "Pegasus" was not appearing on the remote computer as "C on PEGASUS" when I connected to the remote computer via Remote Desktop (Terminal Services.)  All other drives of Pegasus were showing fine on the remote computer, but the one I actually needed (C:) was not.  The drive did not even appear under "\\tsclient" in "Network Places".

Judging by the problems reported by people from all over the world who have this problem and are searching for solutions on the interwebz, it may happen with any local resource, like printers, the clipboard, etc.

Luckily, I found a solution to the problem:

Terminate the RDP session not by closing the RDP window, but by actually logging off. Then, start a new RDP session, and the problem will have most likely gone away.

It is unclear why local resources sometimes fail to show on the remote computer during an RDP session; it is one of those things that "just happen", and that tend to go away if you just "close and reopen it". (Or get out of the car and get back in again, as the joke goes.) The reason for the frustration with this particular problem is that more often than not we do not really "close and reopen it", because we tend to just close the RDP window, which does not terminate our logon session with the server. By logging off and connecting again, the logon session gets restarted, and that's the "close and reopen" needed to fix the problem.


.Net code running faster under the profiler?

So, today it occurred to me that the C# application that I am developing is a bit too slow on startup, and I decided to throw the visual studio profiler at it to see if I have goofed up somewhere. To my astonishment, under the profiler my app ran 10 times faster. The slowness I wanted to troubleshoot was nowhere to be found.

I checked to make sure that the profiler was running the debug version of my app, and sure enough, it was. Or at least the "DEBUG" symbol was defined, and that's what matters most. I reasoned that even if the profiler was overriding the "disable JIT optimizations" setting, the difference would not be anywhere near 10 times.

I tried the release version just in case, and as I expected it performed better than the debug version under the profiler, so the universe was still in its place, but still, I would very much like to know what the profiler did that made the debug version of my app run so much faster. For one thing, it would be a great convenience to be able to enjoy this speedup while developing; waiting for 2 instead of 20 seconds for my app to start every time I want to check something would be very good for productivity.

Hoping that others may have had the same problem before me, I tried my luck with various searches, and I found a couple of articles on StackOverflow, but none pointed at the exact cause of the problem.

Luckily, after a bit of hard thinking, I found the answer: it is the "Enable unmanaged code debugging" flag, which in Visual Studio is not under "Tools / Options / Debugging", (that would make too much sense,) it is under "Project / Properties / Debug".  Checking that checkbox simply makes the debugger slow as molasses. The profiler disables the debugger, so the application appears to run lightning fast.

Here are two related StackOverflow questions to which I added my newly acquired wisdom:

stackoverflow.com: Launching VS Profiler boosts Application Performance x20?

How Come when I sampling profile a program and it actually runs faster than not profiling?


The "Handoff" Pattern

I had been thinking about posting this for quite some time now, and all by coincidence I happened to get a chance to mention it just the other day in an answer that I wrote to a question on Programmers-StackExchange. So, here it is in a more formal way:

If class M stores or manipulates or in any other way works with instances of destructible (disposable) class D, it may not assume the responsibility to destruct these instances, unless it is explicitly told that ownership of these instances is transferred to it. Therefore, class M must accept a boolean called 'handoff' as a construction-time parameter, stating whether instances of D are being handed off to it, and it can therefore destruct them when it is done with them.

    //Note: the IReader interface extends IDisposable
    IReader reader = new BinaryStreamReader( ... );
    reader = new BufferedStreamReader( reader, handoff:true );
        /* use the reader interface */
        reader.Dispose(); //this destructs the buffered stream reader, and 
                          //destruction cascades to the binary stream
                          //reader because handoff was specified.

    var collection = new CollectionOfDestructibles( handoff:true );
    collection.Add( new Destructible( 1 ) );
    collection.Add( new Destructible( 2 ) );
    collection.Add( new Destructible( 3 ) );
    collection.Dispose(); //this destructs the collection and every single
                          //one of its contents, since handoff was specified.

In languages which support optional parameters, the 'handoff' parameter should default to false.


C# Blooper №3: No warnings about fields having already been initialized.

Before reading any further, please read the disclaimer.

When you declare a member variable and you pre-initialize it at the same time, and then you try to re-initialize it within the constructor without ever making use of its original pre-initialized value, you receive no warning about the field having already been initialized.

namespace Test3 
    public class Test 
        public readonly string m = "m"; 
        public string n = "n"; 
        private string o = "o"; 
        protected readonly string p = "p"; 
        protected string q = "p"; 
        private string r = "r"; 

            m = "m2"; //Blooper: no warning about field having already been initialized. 
            n = "n2"; //Blooper: no warning about field having already been initialized. 
            o = "o2"; //Blooper: no warning about field having already been initialized. 
            p = "p2"; //Blooper: no warning about field having already been initialized. 
            q = "q2"; //Blooper: no warning about field having already been initialized. 
            r = "r2"; //Blooper: no warning about field having already been initialized. 
            o.ToLower(); //to prevent Warning CS0414: The field is assigned but its value is never used. 
            r.ToLower(); //to prevent Warning CS0414: The field is assigned but its value is never used. 

This means that you may accidentally invoke complex initialization logic twice, unnecessarily wasting memory and clock cycles, and it may also lead to logic errors, if by any chance that initialization logic has side effects which are only meant to occur once. It may also confuse someone reading your code, (or even yourself looking at your code months later,) trying to figure out what's the purpose behind the seemingly repeated initialization, before the realization sinks in that it is simply redundant. Furthermore, if the re-initialization happens to differ from the pre-initialization, a good question arises, asking which one of the two was meant to be the correct one.

It is a pity, because the compiler could warn the programmer against this pitfall.

Also see related post: C# Blooper №2: No warnings about accessing uninitialized members.


C# Blooper №2: No warnings about accessing uninitialized members.

Before reading any further, please read the disclaimer.

When you declare a member variable, and then you try to read it from within the constructor without having first initialized it, you receive no warning about accessing an uninitialized member. This happens even if the member is declared as readonly.

namespace Test2  
    public class Test 
        public readonly string m; 
        public string n; 
        protected readonly string o; 
        protected string p; 
        private readonly string q; 
        private string r; 

            m.ToUpper(); //Blooper: no warning about accessing uninitialized member. 
            n.ToUpper(); //Blooper: no warning about accessing uninitialized member. 
            o.ToUpper(); //Blooper: no warning about accessing uninitialized member. 
            p.ToUpper(); //Blooper: no warning about accessing uninitialized member. 
            q.ToUpper(); //Blooper: no warning about accessing uninitialized member. 
            r.ToUpper(); //Blooper: no warning about accessing uninitialized member. 
            q = "q"; //to prevent Warning CS0649: Field is never assigned to, and will always have its default value null 
            r = "r"; //to prevent Warning CS0649: Field is never assigned to, and will always have its default value null 

Someone might argue that this is behavior is fine because the member in question is guaranteed to contain its default value. First of all, a readonly member containing its default value is completely useless. (See C# Blooper №1: No warnings about uninitialized readonly members when the class is public and the member is public, protected or protected internal.) Secondly, if the compiler is to help the developer catch potential errors and write better code, this is not a valid excuse: a different strategy is necessary.

If the programmer intends the member to contain its default value, then the programmer ought to explicitly state so. Failing to do so ought to imply intention to initialize the member later on, and certainly before any attempt is made to read the member.  This way, the programmer can have it both ways: they can have members pre-initialized to their default values, and they can receive warnings when they fail to initialize members.

Also please note that the compiler is capable of detecting that the value with which a member is being explicitly initialized is the default value for the type of the member, and so it can refrain from emitting any additional code for the assignment; thus, there is no performance issue.

Also see related post: C# Blooper №3: No warnings about fields having already been initialized.



Local variables should always be initialized, right?

Again and again I see programmers doing the following:

    string emailAddress = string.Empty; 

    if( /*condition*/ ) 
        //do some stuff 
        emailAddress = retrieve_email_address(); 
        //use emailAddress 

You may see it with setting strings to String.Empty as in the example, or you may see it with setting pointers to null, integers to zero, etc. There are two problems here; the first one is easy to see, the second one might not be so easy.

First of all, emailAddress was declared outside of the scope in which it is being used. That's not a very good idea; it should have been declared within the scope in which it is being used, so the code should instead read string emailAddress = retrieve_email_address(); That one was simple. But if we ignore it for a moment, there is another, actually worse problem with the above code.

Some people believe that when declaring a local variable you should always initialize it with some initial value, and they follow this rule with superstitious devotion. This is dead wrong. It may have been advisable back in the dark ages of the first C compilers, but not anymore.

Modern compilers of C, C++, C# and Java are quite good at warning you if a variable might be read before it has been initialized. So, by pre-initializing it at declaration time with a value which is by definition meaningless, (since a meaningful value is not yet known at that time,) you are circumventing the safety checks of your compiler, and you are opening up the possibility of error: if you forget to assign a meaningful value to your variable further down before you make use of it, the compiler will not warn you, because as far as the compiler knows, the variable has already been initialized at declaration time.

(That was from an answer of mine on CodeReview.StackExchange.com.)

Furthermore, when a programmer sees a value being initialized to a certain value, they are inevitably tempted to think that this value has a certain role to play in the algorithm which follows. For example, setting an integer to zero makes one think that what follows must be a loop using that integer as an accumulating sum. So, when that's what you expect, and you read further down only to find that the variable is re-initialized with a different value, it is rather disappointing.